North America offers travellers a huge variety of cultures, whether it’s the familiar sights of the United States, stunning Caribbean beaches on the many islands like Jamaica and Dominican Republic or an incredible Latin influence of nations like Cuba and Mexico. Central America is home to some amazing scenery; Costa Rica is famed for it’s eco-lodgings for tourists within it’s many protected areas.
Recommended Travel Vaccines for North America, Central America & Caribbean
|ALL TRAVELLERS||SOME TRAVELLERS||COURSE*|
|Cholera||6 weeks before travel|
|Diphtheria||Anytime before travel|
|Hepatitis A||2 weeks before travel|
|Hepatitis B||3 weeks before travel|
|MMR||1 month before travel|
|Rabies||4 weeks before travel|
|Tetanus||Anytime before travel|
|Typhoid||2 weeks before travel|
|Yellow Fever||10 days before travel|
*Vaccination schedules are approximate and are calculated based on the first dose. Schedules are subject to change depending on your individual needs and will be discussed in your appointment. These are the minimum times required to complete courses or for vaccines to become fully effective. You can always start your course of vaccinations earlier than stated, as vaccines work best when your body has time to process them. Your Travel Nurse will discuss any health implications in your appointment
Yellow Fever in North & Central America & Caribbean
There is a risk of Yellow Fever in some countries in North & Central America & the Caribbean.
Some countries require arriving travellers to have certification of immunisation for Yellow Fever.
For country specific information on Yellow Fever choose from the list below
Malaria Risk in North & Central America & Caribbean
Malaria is present in some countries in North & Central America & the Caribbean.
There is no vaccination for Malaria, we recommend you have a consultation with our expert Travel Nurses to talk through your Antimalarial medication options for specific countries.
For country specific information on Malaria choose from the list below
Other Health Risks
Chikungunya in North America, Central America & Caribbean
There is a risk of Chikungunya virus in this country. Spread by mosquitos, Chikungunya virus is widespread across Africa, South-East Asia, the Indian sub-continent and the Philippines. Occasionally, the virus can be found in other countries where the mosquito that spreads Chikungunya can also be found. There is no vaccination against Chikungunya, it is important to protect yourself with bite avoidance products like DEET. For more information – click here.
Zika Virus in North America, Central America & Caribbean
Zika is a viral infection transmitted by daytime biting mosquitoes. These mosquitoes bite an infected person and then spread the infection to others when they bite again. Pregnant women are advised not to travel into Zika regions, and male partners must use condoms for 6 months after travel into affected areas to prevent sexual transmission of the disease to a pregnant partner. If planning pregnancy, female travellers should avoid getting pregnant for at least 8 weeks after being in a Zika region. Whereas men must avoid getting a woman pregnant for at least 6 months following travel into a Zika region as the virus can survive in sperm for much longer and can be sexually transmitted. For more information – click here.
Schistosomiasis in North America, Central America & Caribbean
There is a risk of Schistosomiasis in this country. A parasitic infection (also known as bilharzia), Schistosomiasis is transmitted to humans through contact with fresh water, when the parasitic worm enters through the skin. Usually, no symptoms are felt until 2-4 weeks after exposure, when fever, diarrhoea, cough or a rash can occur as the parasites move around the body. Long term disease can lead to damage of the bladder, kidneys, bowel, liver and genital tract. Prevention is dependent on avoidance of swimming, bathing or paddling in fresh water lakes and streams. For more information – click here.